Runoff, Flooding, or Ponding

Runoffs move water and any contaminants across the soil service, which can cause soil erosion. Water can flood or pond therefore restricting plant growth and land use.

Surface water or poor subsurface drainage restricts land use and management goals. Runoff likely leads to soil erosion, while flooding and ponding will lead to loss of crop productivity.

Seasonal High Water Table

Water tables are underground areas that are the level at which soil is completely saturated with water. They are the boundaries between water-saturated ground and unsaturated ground. There is often some seasonal change in the water tables, due to rain or drought. Water tables can become elevated when they receive more rain than they can drain. Surface water or poor subsurface drainage restricts land use, management goals, and plant productivity.


Seeps are moist or wet areas where water has oozed from the ground to the surface, appearing as small water holes or wet spots. Surface water or poor subsurface drainage can lead to restrictive land usage and management goals.

Inefficient use of Irrigation Water

Effective irrigation use can influence the entire growth process. However, problems can occur if irrigation water is not stored, delivered, scheduled, and/or applied efficiently.  Aquifer or surface water withdrawals threaten sustained availability of ground or surface water. Aquifer refers to a body of saturated rock through which water can easily move through.

Available irrigation water supplies have been reduced due to aquifer depletion, competition, regulation, and/or drought.

South Dakota Department of Agriculture
South Dakota Department of Agriculture